The C1 to C6 Spectrum
(Source: John Travis*, Perspectives on the World Christian Movement, 3rd ed. pp. 658-659)
A Practical Tool for Defining Six Types of “Christ-Centered Communities” (“C”) found in the Muslim Context
The C1-C6 Spectrum compares and contrasts types of “Christ-centered communities (groups of believers in Christ) found in the Muslim world. The six types in the spectrum are differentiated by language, culture, worship forms, degree of freedom to worship with others, and religious identity. All worship Jesus as Lord and core elements of the gospel are the same from group to group. The spectrum attempts to address the enormous diversity which exists throughout the Muslim world in terms of ethnicity, history, traditions, language, culture, and in some cases, theology.
C1—Traditional Church Using Outsider** Language
May be the Orthodox, Catholic, or Protestant. Some predate Islam. Thousands of C1 churches are found in Muslim lands today. Many reflect Western culture. A huge cultural chasm often exists between the church and the surrounding Muslim community. Some Muslim background believers may be found in C1 churches. C1 believers call themselves “Christians.”
C2—Traditional Church Using Insider** Language
Essentially the same as C1 except for language. Thou insider language is used, religious vocabulary is probably non-Islamic (distinctively “Christian”). The cultural gap between Muslims and C2 is still large. Often more Muslim background believers are found in C2 than C1. The majority of churches located in the Muslim world today are C1 or C2. C2 believers call themselves “Christians.”
C3—Contextualized Christ-Centered Communities Using Insider Language and Religiously Neutral Insider Cultural Forms
Religiously neutral forms may include fold music, ethnic dress, artwork, etc. Islamic elements (where present) are “filtered out” so as to use purely “cultural” forms. The aim is to reduce foreignness of the gospel and the church by contextualizing to biblically permissible cultural forms. May meet in a church building or more religiously neutral location. C3 congregations are comprised of a majority of Muslim background believers. C3 believers call themselves “Christians.”
C4—Contextualized Christ-Centered Communities Using Insider Language and Biblically Permissible Cultural and Islamic Forms
Similar to C3, however, biblically permissible Islamic forms and practices are also utilized (e.g. praying with raised hands, keeping the fast, avoiding pork, alcohol, and dogs as pets, using Islamic terms, dress, etc.) C1 and C2 forms avoided. Meetings not held in church buildings. C4 communities comprised almost entirely of Muslim background believers. C4 believers, though highly contextualized, are usually not seen as Muslim by the Muslim community. C4 believers identify themselves as “followers of Isa the Messiah” (or something similar).
C5—Christ-Centered Communities of “Messianic Muslims” Who Have Accepted Jesus as Lord and Savior
C5 believers remain legally and socially within the community of Islam. Somewhat similar to the Messianic Jewish movement, aspects of Islamic theology which are incompatible with the Bible are rejected, ore reinterpreted if possible. Participation in corporate Islamic worship varies from person to person and group to group. C5 believers meet regularly with other C5 believers and share their faith with unsaved Muslims. Unsaved Muslims may see C5 believers as theologically deviant and may eventually expel them from the community of Islam. Where entire villages accept Christ, C5 may result in “Messianic mosques.” C5 believers are viewed as Muslims by the Muslim community and refer to themselves as Muslims who follow Isa the Messiah.
C6—Small Christ-Centered Communities of Secret/Underground Believers
Similar to persecuted believers suffering under totalitarian regimes. Due to fear, isolation, or threat of extreme governmental/community legal action or retaliation (including capital punishment), C6 believers worship Christ secretly (individually or perhaps infrequently in small clusters). Many come to Christ through dreams, visions, miracles, radio broadcasts, tracts, Christian witness while abroad, or reading the Bible on their own initiative. C6 (as opposed to C5) believers are usually silent about their faith. C6 is not ideal; God desires his people to witness and have regular fellowship (Heb. 10:25). Nonetheless C6 believers are part of our family in Christ. Though God may call some to a life of suffering, imprisonment, or martyrdom, He may be pleased to have some worship Him in secret, at least for a time. C6 believers are perceived as Muslims by the Muslim community and identify themselves as Muslims.
*John Travis (a pseudonym) has been involved in planting congregations among Muslims in Asia for the past 12 years. He is currently working on a Ph.D. through an American university.
**“Insider” pertains to the local Muslim population; “outsider” pertains to the local non-Muslim population. Used by permission from “The C1 to C6 Spectrum,” Evangelical Missions Quarterly, 34:3 (October 1998), published by EMIS, P.O. Box 794, Wheaton, IL 60189.